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Technical Articles


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1.  Bringing Hyper-Integrated Microcontroller For You
Nowadays microcontrollers – which is a small computer-on-chip consisting of watchdog timers, serial/analog Ports, oscillators etc., are hidden inside in number of electronic products. This technical article brings complete description of hyper-integrated microcontroller.

 
2.  Embedded Processing Trends For You
We know the importance of Nonvolatile Memory – which can retain the stored information even when power is switched OFF, in the wide field of electronics. This article explains all about the Nonvolatile Memory.
 
3.  Comparing Power Consumption of Microcontrollers with FPGAs
FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) having more than thousands of logic gates, is generally considered as the power hungry electronic device. This technical article compares and explains the power consumption issue of microcontroller with FPGA.
 
4.  Microcontroller design in FPGAs
FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) is a kind of logic chip having more than thousands of logic gates. In addition to this, FPGA can be easily programmed as well as modified by user. This technical article explains how FPGA allows more flexibility for more range of microcontroller applications.
 
5.  How to interface USB with Microcontroller
This technical article explains how to interface USB (Universal Serial Bus) with microcontroller using FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) technology.
 
6.  Interfacing FPGA with Microcontroller
This technical article is all about how to interface FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) – which is a logic chip having more than thousands of logic gates, with microcontroller. This technical article explains how microcontroller communicates with FPGA.
 
7.  Several Aspects Of FPGA Power Consumption
FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) is a kind of logic chip having more than thousands of logic gates. Moreover FPGA can be easily programmed by user. This technical article explains several aspects of FPGA power consumption. This article brings various design steps for reducing power consumption.

 
8.  Making your camera phone do more using OMAP-DM5x Microprocessor
Now making your camera phone do more using OMAP-DM5x Microprocessor. OMAP (Open Multimedia Application Platform) is a category of proprietary microprocessor having capabilities for various mobile multimedia applications.

 
9.  Preventing Semiconductors From ESD
Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is a momentary electric current and a serious issue for almost all solid state electronic devices such as integrated circuits. When an ESD-sensitive device, such as a MOSFET becomes the part of discharge path, it may damage. This technical article is all about how to prevent semiconductor from electrostatic discharge.

 
10.  Expand More Interface Using Digital I/O Serial Techniques
Limited numbers of interface may cause problem with the circuit. This technical article is all about how to expand your limited interfaces using digital I/O serial techniques. Some of commonly used interfaces are RS-232, I2C, SPI etc.
 
11.  Sensing Minute Neural Activity Using Sensor
Delivering power to those electronic components embedded within the body is a painstaking task for most of the design engineers. This technical article brings a new sensor called as NeuralWISP – collection of low-power electronics components, which works impeccable with the least consumption of power.
 
12.  

Some Tips For Selecting Optimum User-Interface Displays
This technical article is all about how to select the optimum user-interface display that enhance reliability, cost effectiveness as well as visual performance of the system.
 

13.  

How to interface RTC Chip with AVR Microcontroller
This technical article is all about how to interface DS1307 RTC (Real Time Clock) Chip – which is a low-power computer clock providing minute, year, day and month information., with AVR microcontroller.
 

14.  Use I2C-bus on ATMEL AVR Microcontroller
This technical article is all about how to use I²C (Inter-Integrated Circuit) – which is used to attach low-speed peripherals to embedded system, motherboard and cellphone, with ATMEL AVR microcontroller.
 
15.  Interfacing DS1804 Potentiometer with 8051 Microcontroller
This technical article is all about how to interface DS1804 – which is a digital potentiometer having EEPROM (Electronically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory) memory, with 8051 microcontroller.
 
16.  Interfacing seven segment display thermometer with PIC microcontroller
Seven-segment display, consisting of 8 LEDs (Light-Emitting Diodes), is widely used for displaying decimal numbers. Seven-segment displays are widely used in electronic devices, electronic meters, digital clocks etc. This technical article is all about how to interface seven segment display thermometer with PIC microcontroller.

 
17.  Replacing rigid silicon with organic semiconductor
As we know that most of essential organic materials destroys by the harsh chemical process known as photolithography. This technical article brings our prototype devices including LEDs, made using new photolithography chemicals that are compatible with organic materials.

 
18.  Electronics of operational amplifier for you
Operational amplifier is a direct-coupled high gain amplifier having one or more differential amplifier with single output. This application note explains the electronics of operational amplifier with simple graphs.
 
19.  Sensing Object Using High-Speed Op Amp
This application note is all about how to sense the accurate position of an object using high speed operational amplifier. For detecting the position of object, the proximity sensor transmits IR (infrared) pulses toward the object.

 
20.  Comparing Design And Development of FPGA and Microprocessors
This technical article compares and explains the designs of FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) with microprocessor. The first part of this article explains the simple use of programmable logic. Additionally the second part of this article explains the benefits of PLDs.

 
21.  Direct FPGA Interfacing Using AT91CAP7E Microcontroller
ATMEL – renowned manufacturer of different semiconductors, brings the first ARM7-based microcontroller with the advantage of direct FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) interface.

 
22.  Debugging of serial buses in FPGAs
FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) having more than thousands of logic gates, is a type of chip which can be easily programmed by user or designer. This technical article is all about how to rapid debug the serial buses including SPI, CAN, RS-232 etc., in field programmable gate array.

 
23.  How to select optimum microcontroller
We know the importance of microcontroller in the wide field of electronics. Microcontroller – low power dedicated device, is a small computer on a single integrated circuit having crystal oscillator, serial and analog I/O, watchdog timer and many more. This technical article explains how to select proper microcontroller for a dedicated application.

 
24.  Selecting Proper UPS For You
UPS (Uninterrupted Power Supply) – which is also known as battery backup device, provide emergency power when no more power is available. Nowadays different types of UPS are easy available in market. Selecting the most productive UPS is really a painstaking task for many people. This technical article explains different types as well as working of almost all UPS.

 
25.  Selecting Best IGBT For Solar Inverter Application
This technical article is all about how to select optimum and most correct IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) - a voltage controlled three-terminal power semiconductor device, for various solar inverter applications.

 
26.  Application-Specific Power Semiconductors For You
IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) - a voltage-controlled device, is widely used for fast switching operations. This application note explains application-specific power semiconductors.
 
 
27.  Cheap Route For Robust LEDs
We know the importance of OLEDs (Organic Light Emitting Diodes) in the extensive field of electronics. OLEDs are comonly known as solid-state devices which are composed of thin films of organic molecules. Due to high fabrication cost of OLEDs, HLEDs (Hybrid Light Emitting Diodes) can be considered as the best alternate. This article explains HLEDs for enhancing diode properties.
 
 
28.  

Power Supply Design Techniques For FPGA
FPGA, generally known as hungry devices consisting of thousands of gates, is a kind of logic chip which can be easily programmed by any user. This technical article explains power supply design techniques for FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array).

29.  Several Aspects of FPGA Power Consumption
FPGA consisting of thousands of gates, is commonly known as a power hungry devices. FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) is a kind of logic chip which can be easily programmed by programmer or user. This technical article explains various aspects of FPGA power consumption.

 
30.  High Performance Plastic Electronics For you
This technical article explains high performance and more reliable plastic electronics which can be considered as the best alternate of silicon-based electronics. Additionally organic electronics are more cheaper than silicon-based electronics but organic electronics is still not consistent enough for commercial devices.
 
31.  Selecting Correct Synchronous MOSFET For Flyback Converter
This technical article is all about how to choose the right synchronous MOSFET (Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) – which is an electronic device for amplifying electronic signals, for flyback converters.
 
 
32.  Enhance DSP Performance with on-chip FET
This technical article is all about how to improve the performance of DSP (Digital Signal Processor) with on-chip FET (Field-Effect transistor).
 
 
33.  Detecting Light Using Graphene
Nowadays Graphene having an extraordinary electronic properties, is widely used for making impeccable photodetectors. Generally light detectors are simply made up of trivalent as well as pentavalent semiconductors using the process known as doping.
 
 
34.  Comparing Power Consumption of FPGA with Microcontroller
“Power” is an important issue of concern for most of design engineers. Nowadays we have lots of electronic devices which can works faultless with the least consumption of electric power. This technical article compares the power consumption of FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) with customizable microcontrollers.
 
 
35.  How to interface 8051 microcontroller with UART
This technical article is all about how to interface 8051 microcontroller with UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter) which is a kind of computer hardware for translating data between serial and parallel forms.
 
 
36.  How to debug serial buses in FPGA
This technical article is all about how to debug serial buses including RS-232, CAN, SPI etc., in FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array).
 
37.  Rapid Debugging Serial Buses in FPGA
We know the importance of FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) – which is a kind of chip consisting of more than thousands of gates as well as serial buses, in the massive field of electronics. This technical article explains how to rapidly debug (Process of detecting errors) serial buses in FPGA.
 
 
38.  Interfacing FPGA with microcontroller
Due to different languages, interfacing FPGA with microcontroller can be a challenging task for beginners or hobbyists. Additionally we can also say that due to unavailability of any dedicated logic interfacing can be a difficult task. This technical article brings a dedicated logic for interfacing FPGA with microcontroller.
 
 
39.  Interfacing ADC to PIC Microcontroller
This technical article is all about how to interface the MAX1169 Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) to a PIC family of microcontroller. You can easily understand the above interfacing with simple example and software for PIC18F442 family of microcontroller.
 
 
40.  Reduce Power Consumption using Delta-Sigma ADC
Nowadays “Power” is an important issue of concern for most of the design engineers. Most of the design engineers are currently working on those designs which can works impeccable by consuming least amount of electric power. This technical article explains the use of time delta-sigma ADC (Analog-to-Digital Converter) for reducing power consumption in high speed designs.
 
 
41.  Beginners guide for configuring counter/timer
This technical article is all about how to configure counter / timer using the same techniques you probably use in your high school classes.
 
 
42.  Bridging Gap Between Various Customizable Microcontroller – Part 2
Nowadays customizable microcontrollers have been already solved the problems of interfacing various electronic devices. This technical article is all about how to bridge the gap between various microcontrollers with ASICs (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) and FPGA(Field Programmable Gate Array).
 
 
43.  Bridging Gap Between Various Customizable Microcontroller
We know the importance of ASIC (Application-Specific Integrated Circuit) – which is an integrated circuit which is specially customized for a particular application, in the extensive field of electronics. This technical article is all about how to bridge the gap between microcontroller with SoC (System-on-Chip) and FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array).
 
 
44.  How to interface relay with microcontroller
This technical article is all about how to interface relay with microcontroller. We know that relay is an electrically operated switched that works on the principle of magnetic field.
 
 
45.  How to make transition from 8 to 32 bit microcontroller
This technical article is all about how to make transition from 8 bit microcontroller to a 32 bit microcontroller using PsoC5 which is a embedded system-on-chip configurable microcontroller on a single chip.
 
 
46.  How to interface 7-segment display with microcontroller
7-Segment Display – which is a seven segment indicator in the form of electronic display, is basically a collection of 7 LED's on a common chip. This technical article is all about how to interface 7-segment display with microcontroller.
 
 
47.  How to Interface ADC with 8051 microcontroller
This technical article is all about how to interface ADC0808 (Analog-to-Digital Converter) to 8051 family of microcontroller. We know that ADC0808 is most commonly used converter which can directly excess 8 single ended analog signals.

 
48.  Save time in measurements using oscilloscope
Oscilloscope is a kind of electronic device which is used for testing as well as debugging (process of finding errors) various electronic devices. It is a type of testing instrument that allows signal voltage to be clearly viewed usually a two-dimensional graph of one or more electrical potential difference. This article explains the three main areas where oscilloscope is used and also brings measurement tips for everyday debugging.
 
 
49.  All About Digital-to-Analog Conversion
This technical article is all about DAC (Digital-to-Analog Converter) which is used for converting digital code into analog signal. This technical article explains some basic operation of DACs.
 
 
50.  RFID Technology For You
This technical article is all about the RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology which is worldwide used for tracking and identifying the exact location of any product, animal or person. This article explains RFID and NFC technologies with their associated test and measurement requirements.
 
51.  Application-Specific Power Semiconductors For You
This technical article explains the role as well as the use of IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) in motor drives applications. Additionally IGBT – which is three-terminal semiconductor device, is widely used for fast switching operations in most of applications.
 
52.  Comparing Analog And Digital Approach
Due to easy processing as well as fast operations, we more focus on digital approach. But the real world is analog. This technical article focuses on comparison between analog as well as digital approach.

 
53.  Beginners-based guide for configuring counter/timer
This technical article discuss the concept behind understanding as well as configuring a counter/timer using simple tips and tricks.

 
54.  Steps For Selecting Authentic FPGA
FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array), a kind of chip having thousands of logic gates that can be easily programmed, can be considered as the best alternate for ASICs (Application Specific Integrated Circuit). This technical article is all about how to select the most appropriate FPGA for particular application need.

 
55.  Application-Specific Power Semiconductors For You
This technical article explains application specific power semiconductor IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Semiconductor) which is a bipolar three-terminal semiconductor device for fast switching operations. Additionally this technical article also discuss the use of IGBT in motor drive applications.

 
56.  Metastability - FPGA Based Design Problems
This article discuss metastability in FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) and also explains why this phenomenon occurs resulting design failure. This article also explains how MTBF (Mean Time Between failure) can be easily calculated from device parameters for further improving system reliability.

 
57.  Application-Specific Power Semiconductors IGBT
We know the importance of IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) – which is three-terminal semiconductor device for fast switching, in the wide field of electronics. This technical article brings some of the application-specific power semiconductors. This technical article discusses the use of IGBT in motor drive applications.

 
58.  RFID Technology For You
RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology is widely used for tracking and identification the path of any product, person and animal. With the advent of RFID technology, the global market also expands. This technical article explains RFID and NFC (New Field Communications) technologies for various measurement requirements.

 
59.  Understanding FET Load Switches Operations
This technical article discusses various aspects as well as parameters of MOSFET (Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) based high side load switches that must be considered in designing process. Additional this article also focus exclusively on the enhancement-mode MOSFET.
 
60.  Study Static And Dynamic Characteristics Of IGBT
Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) is a three-terminal semiconductor device which is widely used for fast switching applications. This technical article explains some of the static as well as dynamic characteristics of insulated gate bipolar transistor.

 
61.  How To Selecting Optimum IGBT
For fast switching applications, IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) – which is a three-terminal power semiconductor device, can be considered as best alternate amongst various electronic device. This technical article is all about how to select best IGBT for fast switching operations.

 
62.  Right Thermal Sensing Option For Your Embedded Design
Implementing right thermal sensing option for various embedded design is now not a painstaking task for most of the design engineers. Thermistors can be considered as one of the best alternate for sensing temperature. Thermistor having either a positive or negative temperature coefficient (PTC or NTC) is made up of semiconductor material.
 
 
63.  Interfacing SPI-Interface RTC With PIC Microcontroller
This technical article is all about how to interface DS1305 Real-Time Clock (RTC) with PIC family of microcontroller. The DS1305 can be easily connected to the PIC using the SPI interface. In addition to this, a serial RS-232 port is used for data input and output.
 
 
64.  Selecting Optimum ADC For Communication Application
For converting analog signal into digital signal, we generally use ADC which is Analog-to-Digital Converter. Selecting the optimum ADC is really a pain-staking task for most of the design engineers. This technical article is all about what design factors drive the selection of best ADC.

 
65.  Bringing MCUs & Sensors For Hospitality
We know the importance of sensors – which is an electronic device for measuring physical quality and convert it in signal for easy read and study, in the wide field of electronics. This technical article explains the state-of-the-art technology involved the interfacing of sensors for various medical applications.
 
66.  Integrate FPGA-to-ASIC Technology
This technical article explains how to integrate FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) technology to ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) technology. Enhance more flexibility as well as reliability is the main motto of this integration.
 
67.  Overview RTOS Model For You
SOC (System-on-Chip) integrates all electronic components of a computer or electronic system into a single Integrated Circuit (IC), better known as chip. This first part of article brings some simple basic concepts as well as terminology of a Real-Time System.
 
 
68.  How to Select Optimum ADC: Pipeline vs. Sigma Delta ADC
We know the importance of ADC (Analog-to-Digital Converter) – which is used for converting continuous signal to discrete signal, in the wide field of electronics and communication. This technical article discuss what design factors drive the selection of the best ADC. By following some simple guidelines of this article, you can easily choose either Pipeline ADC and a Sigma-Delta (Σ/Δ) ADC.
 
 
69.  Select Correct Thermal Sensing Option For Embedded Design
This technical article discuss how IC (Integrated Circuit) sensors provides more flexibility, compatibility and cost-effectiveness for most of the thermal-management solutions. This article also explains some more electronic term named as EEPROM (Electronically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory) for further enhance the productivity of system.
 
 
70.  Requirement of Clocking For High Speed Data Converters
This technical article discuss the essential requirement of clocking technologies. For making low phase noise as well as excellent jitter filtering capability, we implement reliable clocks in various data converters including ADC (Analog-to-Digital Converter) and DAC (Digital-to-Analog Converter).
 
71.  Adopting FPGA For Multitude Applications
FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) - a type of logic chip for easily programming, is an integrated circuit which can be configured by designer. Field programmable array can be considered as the next level revolution in the field of electronics. This technical article is all about adopting FPGA for multitude of applications.
 
 
72.  Application-Specific Power Semiconductors For You
We know the importance of IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) - which is a voltage controlled device, in the making of advanced switching power devices. Due to very closed similarity between IGBT and MOSFET, MOSFET IGBT is a voltage-controlled device.

 
73.  FET Load Switches For You
As we know that FET (Field Effect Transistor) is almost similar to BJT (Bipolar Junction Transistor) in terms of working. This technical article brings easy-to-understand approach for explaining various aspects of MOSFET(Metal-oxide semiconductor Field Effect Transistor)-based high-side load switches.
 
74.  Thyristor DC Drive Overview
We know the importance of thyristor – which is a solid-state semiconductor device having four alternate layers like NPNP or PNPN, in the field of electronics. This technical article brings the important basics of thyristor DC motor drive which is actually a speed-controlled industrial drive providing speed control.
 
75.  Model-Based Development into Safety-Critical Embedded Applications
Before writing the actual code, developer can easily test as well as analyze the authenticity of the circuit and this is the main advantage of model based development. Due to presentation in similar notations, model-based developments can be easily understood. This article uses SCADE (Safety Critical Application Development Environment) – which is a tool that supports model based development and safe code generation.

 
76.  Debugging of Serial Buses in FPGAs
This technical article is all about how to debug serial buses including CAN, SPI, I2C etc., in FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array).

 
77.  Principles And Designing Techniques For Filter Banks
For decomposing signals into frequency subbands, we generally use filter banks Filter banks are part of a group of signal processing techniques that decompose signals into frequency subbands. Due to advantage of frequency domain processing over time domain processing, this decomposition is useful and because of this combination filter banks are generally used in FPGAa and ASICs.
 
78.  How DAC and ADC Introduce Noise
Both converters including ADC (Analog-to-Digital Converter) or DAC (Digital-to-Analog Converter) are very important in the field of electronics and some times they are also called data converters. This technical article is all about how ADC or DAC introduces noise through quantization and other “DC” errors.
 
79.  Overview of ADC For DSP
We know the importance of ADC (Analog-to-Digital Converter) – which is an electronic device for converting continuous signal to discrete signal, in the field of electronics especially for DSP (Digital Signal Processing). This technical article explains some of the most popular ADCs including successive approximation, sigma-delta etc.

 
80.  Importance of Clocking For High Speed Data Converters
We know the importance of clock rate in almost all electronic devices. A single cycle toggles between a logical zero (OFF) and a logical one (ON) state. This technical article discuss the clock requirements for high speed data converters.

 
81.  Several Aspects For FPGA Power Consumption
FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) is a simple integrated circuit which can be easily configured by designer. This technical article covers covers several aspects of FPGA power consumption. In addition to this, here you can also learn more about the FPGA technology.
 
82.  Choosing Correct Thermal Sensing For Embedded Design
Implementing correct thermal sensing solutions for most of embedded systems is really a painstaking task for most of the design engineers. Silicon temperature sensor ICs can be considered as the best alternate for cost-effective thermal-management solutions.
 
83.  Detecting Solder Fault in Operating FPGA
This article is all about how to detect solder joint faults in operating FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) – which is an integrated circuit designed to be configured by any designer, in real time for aerospace, military and automotive applications.

 
84.  Incorporating More IP For SoC
This paper explains the three generation of SoC (System-On-Chip) beginning with flat single AHB (Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture) Bus based interconnect.
 
85.  Approach Towards Fast System-On-Chip Solution
As we know that a SoC (System-On-Chip) comprises of memories, buses, processors, timers and also the embedded software into a single integrated circuit. In this paper, we discuss the transaction level model which is being developed to act as virtual prototype in digital image processors designed to fit into mobile applications.
 
86.  Selecting Pipeline Or Sigma Delta ADC For Better Communications
We all know the importance of ADC (Analog-to Digital Converter) in the field of electronics. The ADC (Analog-to Digital Converter) is an electronic device which directly converts analog or continuous signal into discrete signal. Here you can see the two most popular ADC architecture including Pipeline ADC and Sigma Delta ADC.
 
 
87.  Still Opportunities For 16-bit Microcontrollers
Despite of its old age, 16-bit microcontrollers are still widely used and admired for impeccable working in electronics industry. Nowadays we have a perception that the world is migrating from 16-bit microcontroller to 32-bit microcontroller. But the reality is that 16-bit microcontrollers are still the first choice for most of the design engineers.
 
88.  Making of High-Speed FPGA Memory Interfaces
As we know that external Double Data Rate (DDR) memory types are the common part of many FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) designs. This article brings the architecture behind the I/O (Input/Output) blocks in high-end FPGAs and how these FPGAs are able to achieve 533 MHz or 1067 Mbps data rates.

 
89.  Security Challenges For Embedded Designs
Security is an important issue of concern for most of design engineers in embedded industry. Nowadays we are completely depend directly or indirectly on embedded system – a computer system for performing one dedicated function. This article is all about the security challenges for embedded designs.
 
 
90.  Detecting Resident Activities Using Sensors
For monitoring electrical variations of various electronic devices, sensor plays a vital role. A sensor is an electronic device which measures physical quality and converts it into signal that can be easily observe or read by user. This technical article is all about how a sensor can detect various activities of resident.
 
 
91.  Revolution For Embedded Multiprocessor
Instead of increasing the clock speed of embedded microprocessor, nowadays most of the design engineers are more focusing on increasing the number of processors. This is the correct time for the revolution in the electronic industry. This technical article is all about how the design engineers can survive the revolution in the embedded microprocessor.
 
 
92.  Power Managements Semiconductors For Mobile Applications
This technical article is all about how to manage power for most of the semiconductor devices. MOSFET (Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) which is used to amplify or switch electronic signals, brings revolution in the electronic industry. MOSFET can be further divided into two main categories including NMOSFET and PMOSFET.
 
 
93.  Monitor Three-Phase AC Line Power Using ADC
For monitoring three-phase AC line power, multichannel simultaneous-sampling ADC (Analog-To-Digital Converters) trims most of your bill cost. In addition to this, it also helps in detecting the fault or any kind of power loss.
 
 
94.  Selecting Right Power-Supply IC For Your Applications
This technical article is all about how to select right power-supply IC for a given applications. This article discusses the feature of the three most common types of DC-DC converting power supply ICs. Here you can also see some more links to other applications.
 
 
95.  Detecting Blood Proteins Using Silicon Chips
This technical article is all about how a chip consisting of light sensor, detects blood proteins. Nowadays by measuring telltale molecules in the blood, doctor can easily predict the early stage of cancer.
 
 
96.  Choosing Right MPSoC-based Video Architecture
We all are familiar with the technical term named as “MPSoC – Multiprocessor System-on-Chip” which is actually a system-on-chip having multiple processors for lost of embedded applications. This technical article is all about how to choose the right MPSoC-based video architecture.
 
 
97.  Coloured LED Technology For You
LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes) – which is considered as the unsung heroes in electronic industry, is an electronic light source. Basically LEDs are tiny light bulbs having no filament. Nowadays coloured LEDs are also widely used in day to day life. This article is all about coloured LEDs.
 
 
98.  Analysis of MEMS Technology
MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) – fast lane technology, is simply the integration of electronics, sensors as well as mechanical elements. As we know that most of electronic components are fabricated using “CMOS Technology”, the micromechanical components can be made using compatible “Micromachining” processes that selectively etch away parts of the silicon wafer.
 
 
99.  Open Source Hardware For You
Open source hardware is the same part of open source culture where design engineers are completely free to add as well as modify their designs. Additionally, open source hardware also supports the original design resulting additional advantage to user. This technical article is all about open source hardware. 
 
 
100.  Integrating Sensors into Plastic Fiber
For turning silk into sensor, researchers are adding some of the biological molecules by bathing them in a solution of Nanotubes. Detecting some of the important biological changes like pathogens numbers, RBC etc., is the main aim of this research. This can be easily worn by any person.
 
 
101.  Watch Workers Using Wearable Sensors
We know the importance of Sensor – which is an electronic device measures physical quality and also converts it into electronic signal, in the field of electronics. Now the same sensor will also records the details for your social interactions in the office. Making the employees more productive by saving more and more time in interactions is the main aim of this discovery.
 
 
102.  Detecting Faults Using Peridynamic Equations
Before the final chip fabrication, now most of design engineers could easily detect fault in their circuits using a special technique named as “Peridynamic Equations”. Detecting fault before chip manufacturing is the main aim of discovering this new method.
 
 
103.  How Robot Navigates Like Human
Some researchers from Europe have developed a new robot having capability of moving autonomously like human. The machine is controlled by algorithms designed to mimic different parts of the human visual system. This article is all about how robot navigates like human.
 
 
104.  Tracking Water Leakage Using Sensors
Tracking the leakage of water from source is really a painstaking task for most of us. Now you don't have to worry regarding this problem. The technology named as “Hydrosense” can easily detects the leakage of water and also recognize the pressure change. Here you can see the smart use of sensor which measures a physical quality and converts it into signal for further reading.
 
 
105.  How Ultracaps Boosts Hybrid Efficiency?
This technical article is all about how ultracaps – which is electrochemical double layer energy storage device, boots hybrid efficiency. Additionally ulracapacitors could also dramatically improve the efficiency of another class of hybrid vehicle that uses small electric motors called microhybrids.
 
 
106.  Revolution in Wireless Technology
Tracking the body temperature of large number of cattle is really a painstaking task for farmers. With the wireless technology, such challenges can be easily overcome by attaching simple temperature sensor with a wireless transmitter. This article is all about the wireless technology. 
 
 
107.  Working of Software Virtualization in Embedded System
This is a time for open source hardware and software. For enabling additional use of open-source operating system as well as application, nowadays most of the design engineers are more focusing on the software virtualization. This technical article is all about how the software virtualization works in embedded systems.
 
 
108.  Experts View – NAND and SSDs
We all are familiar with both the technical terms named as “NAND” and “SSD”. The first one “NAND” which is used in USB and Memory Cards while the second is “SSD – Solid State Devices”. This article brings some of the comments from the industry experts regarding NAND and SSD.
 
 
109.  Making Embedded System Different
An embedded system – which is combination of both hardware and software, is a simple computer system specially designed for performing one or more dedicated functions. This technical article is all about the embedded system.
 
 
110.  All about ALS Technology
For measuring the brightness of light incident on a surface, we generally focus on ALS (Ambient Light Sensing) technology. Ambient Light Sensing technology is the ability to measure the brightness of incident light which is used to control certain aspects of a system including size of aperture, brightness of display etc. This technical article is all about ALS technology.
 
 
111.  Long Journey By Embedded System
We all know the importance of “Embedded System Design” in the field of electronics. An embedded system is simply a computer system which is specially designed for performing one or more dedicated functions. Embedded System has been spend nearly 20 years in the field of electronics.
 
 
112.  Designer's Guide For Embedded Wi-Fi
Due to inexpensive network and easy communication, Wi-Fi networking is becoming increasingly popular for most of the embedded applications. Howsoever, implementing Wi-Fi networking for embedded applications is a painstaking task for most of the design engineers. This technical article is all about Wi-Fi networking for embedded systems.
 
 
113.  Applications For Stepper Motor Drive Panel
We all know the term named as “Stepper Motor” which is actually a brushless synchronous motor which divides full rotation into large number of steps. Here is the application that drives unipolar stepper motor as one enters desire RPM (Revolutions Per Minute) and number of rotations. This circuit can be easily rotated any unipolar stepper motor for number of rotations at set RPM both entered by user.
 
 
114.  Save Power Using Switched Reluctance Motors
We are all familiar with the electronic term named as “Switched Reluctance Motor” which is actually a rotating electric machine having both stator as well as rotor. Both stator and rotor have their own salient poles. Nowadays electronic consumers are looking for those electronic devices which works faultless with the least consumption of power. This article is all about how switched reluctance motor enable green design.
 
 
115.  Harvesting Energy For Embedded Designs
According to Moore's Law, the demand for an IC will increase double in every two years. As the demand for IC will increase we also need gigantic amount of power. Nowadays modern low-power microcontrollers have reached such a level that for performing many applications they require no traditional batteries.
 
 
116.  Enhancing Embedded System Using BIST
BIST (Built-In-Self-Test) – initially developed for test random logic, is now more common for exercising Embedded RAM (Random Excess Memory). BIST is now more popular because it can identify manufacturing-failure modes more faster than any conventional test vector.
 
 
117.  Interfacing DDR3 SDRAM Memories With FPGA
Without introducing the leveling feature into FPGA I/O structure, interfacing anything to DDR3 SDRAM is too complicated as well as costly. This technical article is all about how to interface between a DDR3 SDRAM Memories to FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array).
 
 
118.  Optimizing Reliability For Embedded Wireless Systems
This technical article is all about how to optimize the reliability and power efficiency of embedded wireless system. Now you can apply dynamic-data-rate and dynamic-output-power techniques to ensure that wireless messages get through with minimal power consumption. Nowadays engineers often implement frequency agility to enhance reliability.
 
 
119.  Low-Power Transceivers For Medical Electronics
Are you familiar with the technical term named as “Transceivers”? A transceiver having both transmitter as well as receiver, is a electronic communication device. Nowadays wireless implanted medical device requires modern transceivers which works impeccable with the least consumption of power.
 
 
120.  Software For Embedded Systems
We all know the term named as “Embedded System” which is a special purpose system for performing one or few dedicated function along with real-time computing constraints. This technical article is all about developing software for embedded system. Nowadays most of the design engineers are moving from HDL (Hardware Description Language) to Line of Code.
 
 
121.  PPTC Devices For Circuit Protection
Protecting electronic devices due to excessive current is an important issue of concern for most of the electronic design engineers. But nowadays PPTC (Polymeric Positive Temperature Coefficient) – which is actually a circuit-protection device, is widely appreciated across the world. It prevents your device from overheating as well as excess current.
 
 
122.  LED Technology For Camera Phones
Now LED (Light Emitting Diode) – which is an electronic light source, is widely used for the pixels in small format LCDs in battery powered applications. This same technology is also used for camera phones to illuminate a scene when taking picture in dim light. This technical article is all about LED technology for camera phone.
 
 
123.  Ticketing Scheme Using RFID
We all are familiar with the the technical term “RFID” - Radio Frequency Identification. Identifying the exact location of any person, product or animal using radio waves is the main aim of this state-of-the-art technology. And now this technology has also been adopted for ticketing scheme. The world's first RFID-based scheme for single-journey reusable ticketing in mass transportation has gone live in Seoul, South Korea.
 
 
124.  Increase Energy Using Boundary-Conduction Mode
For quickly charging energy-storage capacitors, most of the designers often uses chargers with flyback topologies. In a flyback topology the energy transfer takes place only when the charger’s power MOSFET (Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) is OFF. This article is all about increasing energy using boundary-conduction mode.
 
 
125.  Selection of Low Power MCU (Microcontroller)
With the massive use of microcontrollers in almost all power-conscious applications, low power has become an important parameter while selecting them. This technical paper discuss some important parameters while selecting MCU and also explains hardware and software control of transition and recovery between its low power modes and active mode to implement dynamic power management successfully.
 
 
126.  Advantages of FPGA – based DDCs
The digital downconverter (DDC) – which converts digitized real signal to a basebanded complex signal, has become a cornerstone technology in communication systems. From the last few years, the functions associated with DDCs have seen a shift from being delivered in ASICs to operating as IP (intellectual property) in FPGAs.This article explores some of the key advantages of implementing DDC designs in FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays).
 
 
127.  Keep in Touch With RFID
We all are familiar with the term named as “RFID” - Radio Frequency Identification which is used for identification or tracking any product, person or animal. For identification and tracking this technology uses radio waves. Now this new technology is also uses for prevention of diseases. Now all the newborn sheep and goats are equipped with an electronic ear tag for ensuring their identification, traceability and also restriction the spread of animal diseases.
 
 
128.  What makes embedded different?
We all are familiar with the term named as “Embedded System” which is special purpose machine for performing one or few dedicated functions. It is combination of both hardware as well as software. This article is all about what makes embedded different.
 
 
129.  Understanding Touchscreen Technology
Nowadays touchscreen is everywhere. This state-of-the-art technology is embedded in almost every electronic device including remote controls, GPS systems, medical monitoring equipments etc. Thia article is all about touchscreen technology which can detect the presence and location of a touch within display area.
 
 
130.  Maintain Dynamic Range by Reducing Amplifier Offset
For many applications where a high gain is needed, an amplifier – which usually increases the amplitude of a signal, with low offset voltage and drift is required. This article is all about how to maintain dynamic range by reducing amplifier offset.
 
 
131.  Analyzing Circuit Noise and Performance of Analog Circuits
This article is all about the analyzing of circuit noise of analog circuits. This article also explains special situation where both correlated and uncorrelated noise exist, and offer optimization suggestions for the circuit.
 
 
132.  Lossy Data Compression in Embedded Systems
Data Compression – which is the process of encoding information, can be seen in almost every embedded product including Digital Cameras, HDTV, MP3 players, DVD players, Fax Machine etc. We can say that data compression is an integral part of their operation. Lossy data compression is used in applications where an acceptable amount of data loss is allowed in the compression algorithm.
 
 
133.  Maintaining Dynamic Range by Reducing Amplifier Offset
We know the term named as “Operational Amplifier” which is a DC-coupled voltage amplifier with differential inputs and single output. This amplifier is specially designed for the purpose where someone need high gain. This article is all about maintaining dynamic range by reducing amplifier offset.
 
 
134.  Organic CMOS for RFID Applications
This article is all about the Organic CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor) technology which is considered as the best technology for RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) applications because it can be easily printed on thin flexible films. Moreover it can be easily bend.
 
 
135.  Transimpedance Amplifier For You
We all are familiar with the electronic term named as “Operational Amplifier” which is a DC-coupled high-gain electronic voltage amplifier with differential inputs and single output. This is all about the transimpedance amplifier where the "Gain" or "transimpedance" is equal to RF (Feedback Resistor). This article will show how to calculate the value for the feedback capacitor to ensure that the design has the largest possible bandwidth, and will still be stable.
 
 
136.  Simple Method For regulating Output Current
Regulating the secondary side output voltage/current is now simple with flyback converter. Flyback converter regulate secondary side output voltage/current which is generally in the secondary feedback circuit. High device cost is the main drawback of this traditional approach.
 
 
137.  Deinterlacing Technique With FPGA
We all know the term named as “FPGA” - Field Programmable Gate Array. This article is all about how FPGAs are increasingly being used for complex deinterlacing functions required for HDTVs (High-Definition Television). 
 
 
138.  Reducing Amplifier Offset to Maintain Dynamic Range
We all are familiar with the term “Operation Amplifier” which is DC coupled high-gain amplifier and the output of the op-amp is controlled either by negative feedback. When there is a need of high gain we generally use op-amps. This article is all about the reducing amplifier offset to maintain dynamic range.
 
 
139.  Selecting NAND Flash For Embedded Applications
With the huge demand for NAND flash in the consumer market, the prices for storage devices are decreasing dramatically. This technical article is all about selecting a authentic NAND Flash for various embedded applications.
 
 
140.  Improve System by reducing Electrostatic Discharge (ESD)
Reducing the effect of Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) – which is rapid transfer of electrostatic charge between two objects, is one of the biggest problems for most of the electronic engineers. This technical article brings some of tips for reducing the effect of Electrostatic Discharge (ESD).
 
 
141.  Making the Embedded System Safe and Secure
Making the safe as well as secure embedded system – which is a special-purpose machine for performing one or few dedicated functions, is really painstaking task of most of the electronic engineers. Many products with embedded demand high level of reliability such that they can be trusted to operate in some of the critical conditions. This is all about the making of truthworthy and durable embedded system.
 
 
142.  Monitoring Temperature in Multiple Rooms using Microcontroller
Nowadays energy crisis is one of the hottest topic in current scenario. With the advancement in cutting-edge technology, new ultra-low power consumption microcontrollers are helping to reduce the overall power consumption. For achieving a energy efficient home, small sensors can be easily mounted around the home for detecting the exact level of power and temperature.
 
 
143.  Building of Consumer Appliances & Smart Meters with 8 bit MCUs
We all are well-known the term named as “Microcontroller” which is a computer-on-chip consisting of simple CPU combined with support functions such as watchdog, crystal oscillator, serial and analog I/O devices etc. The capabilities available in Low-Pin-Count (LPC) 8-bit MCUs make them excellent design choices for home appliances such as water heaters, electric pots, de-humidifiers and hair dryers.
 
 
144.  Improving Signal Integrity in IO Serial Interface
Signal Integrity- which is a measure of the quality of an electrical signal has always been a serious issue of concern to various engineers. With the move towards serial data links operating at GHz data rates, the digital hardware designers are paying equally attention to this vital topic. This article is all about the improving of signal integrity in IO serial interface.
 
 
145.  Monitoring Hospital Bed using Sensors
Monitoring the activity of various medical equipments of hospital is not a difficult task. Nowadays all the medical equipments are equipped with special sensor. An electronic sensor is a device which not only measures the physical quality but also converts it into the form of signal which can be easily observe or read by an instrument.
 
 
146.  Role of Robotics in Flexible Manufacturing
When most engineers think about “flexibility,” they imagine Robot which is a mechanical artificial agent. Due to programmable controls, end-of-arm tooling and machine vision systems, the devices can perform a wide variety of repeatable tasks.
 
 
147.  Getting Started with DS8007 Evaluation Kit
This article describes the steps necessary to quickly begin using the evaluation (EV) kit for the DS8007, dual smart card interface. This article describes how to get started quickly using this EV kit and how to begin developing and running application code. This DS8007 Evaluation Kit consists of DS8007 and DS5002FPmicrocontroller which can be that can be easily programmed.
 
 
148.  Embedded flash technologies - foundation of flash MCU growth
Microcontroller – computer-on-chip, is a small computer on single integrated circuit consisting of SRAM (Static Random Access Memory), embedded flash memory modules and peripheral modules including a timer, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), serial communication and also networking. In contrast to microprocessors, which are used in personal computers and other high-performance applications, microcontrollers are designed for small applications. This is all about the microcontroller with embedded flash memories (flash-MCUs) which are widely used in real-time control application markets.
 
 
149.  Introduction to Serial Peripheral Interface
For exchanging data between two devices, one is called master and other is called slave, SPI (Serial Peripheral Interface) is more preferred over IIC (Inter-Integrated Circuit Bus). EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable read Only Memory) and Real-Time Clocks are examples of such devices. This technical article is all about the SPI.
 
 
150.  Introducing Cryptography in Embedded Systems
This technical article is all about the basics of “Cryptography” – which is the art and science of manipulating data so that outside parties cannot undo or mimic the manipulation without knowledge of a secret in embedded systems. Making confidential the information during storage and transmission is the main aim of this job. 
 
 
151.  Compact embedded sensors fit the bill for critical applications
Advanced technologies are paving the way for pressure and position sensors to be used in vital industrial, military, and medical systems. The following discussion will present the technologies in play for pressure and position sensing and explain the primary issues involved in choosing the right sensor technology. 
 
 
152.  10 More Reasons To Buy Robots
Over the last three years, technology has moved on apace, market conditions and attitudes have changed, employment trends have fluctuated and even ethical considerations have altered, so perhaps it’s time for me to offer 10 more reasons to buy robots. Some of them are as follows: 
 
 
153.  Choosing the right RTOS: A life or death decision
Selecting the correct RTOS (Real Time Operating System) – a multitasking operating which is intended for real-time applications, for an embedded application is really a complex task. While selecting the correct RTOS the developers should have extra caution. If the embedded system is a medical device, that decision becomes even more complicated because the device’s operation has life or death implications.
 
 
154.  Understanding Crypto Performance in Embedded Systems
This article is the first in a two part series covering both hardware and software variables impacting cryptographic performance. This article brings the basics of cryptography which is actually the art and science of manipulating data so that outside parties cannot undo or mimic the manipulation without knowledge of a secret. Making the information more confidential during storage and transmission is the main aim of this article.
 
 
155.  High-Flying Robots
Due to high reliability and more accurate in decisions, the demand of robotic circuit is increasingly at very fast rate. Now robots are becoming a key part of not only the aerospace but also the military fields. Robots are ideal for repetitive assembly operations, such as drilling, fastening, composite layup and welding. Trimming, routing, painting, coating and nondestructive testing are other applications where aerospace manufacturers are applying robotic technology.
 
 
156.  Integrating Video Signal Capacity with High-Speed Amplifiers
The composite video signal of the 1950s still has a large presence in today's high-definition (HD) analog and digital video. Most parameters associated with composite video remain major considerations in system design. Two key parameters that are unique to composite video performance are differential gain (DG) and differential phase (DP), which are such critical factors in the composite video signal path as it has become standard practice to integrate them in almost all high-speed amplifier data sheets. 
 
 
157.  Picking of ideal ADC for medical application
Technology is enabling portable self-care health systems that help people monitor vital signs such as blood pressure, blood sugar and temperature. All these medical measurement devices needs the combination of amplifiers, filters and ADC. ADC (Analog-To-Digital Converter) which resolve the sensor's signal converts continuous signals to discrete digital numbers. This technical article is all about the perfect ADC for your medical measurement devices. 
 
 
158.  Demand for Class D Amplifiers
Due consuming least amount of power as well light weight than that of any of Class AB power amplifiers, Class D has been becomes first choice in consumer audio. Additionally Class D amplifiers does not need large transformer making lighter in weight than an equivalent Class AB amplifier. This technical article is all about the Class D amplifiers.
 
 
159.  Microchip Nanowatt XLP Microcontroller
Microchip Technology Inc., manufacturing of VLSI CMOS semiconductor components, microcontroller, brings next-generation low-power PIC microcontroller families with nanoWatt XLP eXtreme low power technology. This state-of-the-art technology based microcontroller is specially designed for sleep currents as low as 20 nA which is also compatible low-power migration path that includes on-chip peripherals for USB and mTouch sensing solutions. 
 
 
160.  Designing impeccable motor control systems
Due to better power efficiency as well as low cost, microcontrollers are widely used in wide range of application including refrigerators, washers, computers etc. Texas Instruments (TI) offers the TMS320C2000 Piccolo MCU series which brings the benefits of 32-bit real-time control to applications typically unable to justify the associated cost. It also reduce the complexity of the system as well as cost. 
 
 
161.  Replacing halogen lighting with LEDs
Light-emitting diode (LED) is an electronic light source which can be considered as the best replacement for halogen bulbs because LEDs do not suffer from low efficiency, poor reliability or short lifetime. Due to low power consumption and their small size, they are used for several applications. This article instructs on how to drive high-power LEDs in a DC lighting system.
 
 
162.  CMOS challenges CCD for image-sensing lead
Due to its high resolution picture and low power consumption, the complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) is generally preferred over charge-coupled devices (CCDs). CMOS is also used in some analog circuits, namely sensors, highly integrated transceivers, data converters, etc.
 
 
163.  High-voltage motor control system design considerations
Nowadays, we have many state-of-the-art technology based motors like the rotary motor, linear motor, special motor, etc, fwhich all work impeccably with the least amount of electric power consumption. This technical article discusses in detail the high-voltage motor control system.
 
 
164.  ISRO Picks ITT Connectors For Chandrayaan-1
ITT Electronic Components – a renowned manufacturer and supplier of connectors and cable assemblies brings the most reliable and robust Micro-D connector with exceptional attenuation. ITT's Micro-D connectors are used to transmit information on data input and conversion equipment on the spacecraft. 
 
 
165.  Increase options for stepper motor control
Due to wide range of applications in electronic industry, you all are very familiar with stepper motor control. Stepping motors can be viewed as electric motors without commutators. A stepper motor is a kind of electric motor with an internal rotor containing permanent magnets and a set of electro-magnets around that which are switched electronically. 
 
 
166.  Choose an oscilloscope with the right bandwidth
This article brings you some helpful hints on how to select an oscilloscope with the appropriate bandwidth for both applications i.e., digital and analog applications. The oscilloscope is basically a graph-displaying device - it draws a graph of an electrical signal. 
 
 
167.  Linear Introduces Differential ADC Buffer
Linear Technology – a leading manufacturer of high performance integrated circuits has introduced a wideband unity gain 2GHz differential buffer aimed at addressing the challenge of driving high resolution ADCs (Analog To Digital Converters). The LTC6416 works impeccable with extremely low output noise. 
 
 
168.  Plasma Arc Gasification for Waste Management (Part 2 of 2)
A plasma pyrolysis system has been developed in Gujarat, which can treat 15-20 kg of hospital waste per hour. This device can be set up at a cost of Rs 1-1.2 million. It can be used efficiently for municipal solid waste and plastic waste.
 
 
169.  Making of an Electronic Distance Meter
You can easily attach this simple electronic circuit to your bicycle and assess the exact distance covered. This circuit works impeccably with minimal consumption of the power battery. Truly a perfect project for beginners having limited knowledge of electronics.
 
 
170.  Beginner-based Tone Controller
Welcome to this webpage, which demonstrates the circuit diagram of a Tone Controller. With the help of this innovative device you can adjust the sound or pitch of your stereo player as per your mood. This simple circuit consumes minimal electric power and is a perfect project for novices, having limited knowledge of electronics. 
 
 
171.  Tutorial for Wire Connector
For making your circuit faultless working, proper wiring play a vital role. Proper wiring brings better connectivity between various electronic devices results impeccable operation. Now a days there are lots of methods for wiring the circuit. This website brings some of the simple methods for wiring which can be easily performed by hobbyists and beginners. For more understanding, here you can also see the live working on the video. 

 
172.  All About the LED (Light Emitting Diode)
Welcome to this website which brings each and every information regarding the LED (Light Emitting Diode) which is a semiconductor that emits light when an electric current is applied in forward direction. LEDs are used in various applications including digital clock, indicator light, remote controls etc., so they are also called the “Real Unsung Heroes” in the electronic industry. 
 
 
173.  A Simple PWM Circuit Based on 555 Timer
Controlling the speed of DC Motor is one of the basic problems while making the robotic circuit. PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) is an effective method for controlling the speed of DC Motor. For generating PWM signals, many people generally use microcontroller. Here you can see the simple circuit of 555 PWM Circuit which is easy to understand as well as construct. The 555 timer in the PWM circuit is configured as an astable oscillator. 
 
 
174.  Data Acquisition and Logging System using Microcontroller
Data Acquisition System is merely the method of accumulating data or information. The Data Acquisition System is generally electronics-based and comprises both hardware and software parts. Here you can view the circuit diagram of a Data Acquisition System consisting of the ATMEL AT89C51 microcontroller. 
 
 
175.  Construction of a miniature Pong Game
This website exhibits the circuit diagram of a microPong game. A majority of us are familiar with this amusing game. The entire construction process has been illustrated at length using a PCB (Printed Circuit Board) layout right from the incipient steps down to the eventual final workings. This is a fitting project for tyros having limited knowledge of electronics.
 
 
176.  Buliding a Frequency Counter with PIC
The simple circuit diagram of a Frequency Counter is displayed here. This website proffers the detailed description of a Small Frequency Counter, which can be produced with the aid of an inexpensive PIC microcontroller and a few seven-segment LED digits. This site also brings you the simplest possible PCB layout of this circuit. 
 
 
177.  Making of an SMS Remote Controller
You will be amazed to know that assembly of the SMS Remote Controller Circuit is not only simple but also interesting. Now you can effortlessly jockey your electronic appliances in any direction merely by sending an SMS. This website proffers to you fundamental information required for the composition of an SMS Remote Controller Circuit.
 
 
178.  Construction of a High and Low Voltage Cutout Circuit
Voltage variation is one of the common problems which reduces the life of your electronic appliances. Sometimes it even damages electronic components of devices like the TV, VCR, Music System, etc. This circuit provides a solution to this irksome problem by safeguarding electronic equipment against variation in voltage. This brilliant circuit emits a melodic sound every time the voltage is too low or high, hence preventing damage of your electronic devices.
 
 
179.  Beginner-oriented Three-Color Display
For all those who are interested in attempting a fun and different electronic project, here is displayed the uncomplicated circuit diagram of a Three-Color Display Circuit, which can produce three colors, namely yellow, red and green. This simple circuit consists of Bicolor Light Emitting Diodes [LEDs], which are responsible for producing the three colors. This is an ideal project for beginners having limited knowledge of electronics.
 
 
180.  Making of an SMS Remote Controller
You will be amazed to know that assembly of the SMS Remote Controller Circuit is not only simple but also interesting. Now you can effortlessly jockey your electronic appliances in any direction merely by sending an SMS. This website proffers to you fundamental information required for the composition of an SMS Remote Controller Circuit.
 
 
181.  AVR Line Following Robot
This uncomplicated electronic circuit consists of IR sensors and IR light emitting diodes (LEDs). This website shows us the easiest way to make an AVR line following robot, comprising the ATMEL AVR microcontroller. 
 
 
182.  Beginner-friendly Night Light Saver
Nowadays everyone has become environment-conscious and the current scenario is rife with talks of “going green” and saving energy. We are increasingly giving preference to those electronic circuits, which are consuming the least amount of power. On this link you can find a simple circuit diagram of a Night Light Saver, which automatically turns off during the day. This circuit includes the Microchip PIC12C508 microcontroller, which is a high performance EEPROM/EPROM/ROM-based CMOS microcontroller.
 
 
183.  Construction of Line Follower Robot
Composition of robotic circuits is an intriguing activity for technical and non-technical persons alike. A number of people are interested in learning the technicalities that go into construction of robotic circuits. Here you can learn the uncomplicated circuit of a Line Follower Robot containing ATMEL AT89C2051 microcontroller. Basic knowledge of C programming is imperative if one intends to attempt the assembly of this circuit. 
 
 
184.  Making of Automatic Temperature Controller
The easy availability of this electronic circuit makes controlling the temperature of any electronic device simpler. This website displays an easy circuit diagram of an automatic temperature controller, which maintains the temperature of the load between two levels. This circuit comprises of an operational amplifier, which is basically a DC-coupled high-gain electronic voltage amplifier having differential inputs and a single input contributing to its smooth operation.
 
 
185.  Designing of PCB with Eagle
This article instructs you on the simplest method to design the layout of a printed circuit board (PCB) with the aid of Easily Applicable Graphical Layout Editor (Eagle). Eagle is a PCB design software package consisting of a schematic editor, a PCB editor and an autorouter module. This article is specially designed for amateurs who are keen on making their own PCB. 
 
 
186.  Making of Automatic Gate Lights
Here you can learn about circuit-making of Automatic Gate Lights. Sensing the presence of a person,this automatic gate light circuit turns on by itself and produces a musical sound.The circuit remains on for a certain period of time in order to save electricity.This simple circuit has two areas of work:a transmitting unit and a sensing unit.
 
 
187.  Game Show Timer for novices
Are you keenly interested in making an interesting as well as different electronic project? Here you can see the simple circuit diagram of a game show timer which has been specially designed for budding electronics enthusiasts . With the assistance of these instructions, you can make this electronic circuit within a few minutes ! 
 
 
188.  Making of Battery Testers
This webpage brings to you an uncomplicated method of making reliable Battery Testers. The heart of this device is the LM3914 integrated circuit ,which is manufactured by National Semiconductor , a renowned semiconductor manufacturing company specializing in analog devices. 
 
 
189.  Inductive Load Driving for beginners
This webpage elucidates the implementation of an inductive load driver with the assistance of the ATMEL AT90S2313 microcontroller. The ATMEL AT90S2313 microcontroller is a state-of-the-art technology-based low power CMOS 8-bit microcontroller based on the AVR RISC. Here you can learn how an inductive load driver really works. 
 
 
190.  Making of Infrared Cordless Headphone
Are you interested in making your own infrared cordless phone? If yes, you are at right place. Now you can easily reproduce audio from your TV without disturbing others. For transmitting signal from your TV to headphone, this simple circuit uses invisible infrared light. Additionally, you will be amazed to know that this circuit works impeccable with the least consumption of power. 
 
 
191.  Beginner-based Line Follow Robot
Robotic projects have always been an intriguing venture for electronics' novices and wizards alike. This website demonstrates the uncomplicated diagram of a Line Follow Robot. It also illustrates the live construction of this circuit via a short film as well as its functioning process. 
 
 
192.  Making of Fan Controller
When it comes to the making of most reliable fan controller circuit then only this website is counted on the top rank. Avoiding the overheating of fan coil resulting short circuit is the main objective of making this simple electronic circuit. For working impeccable, this simple circuit consists of two forward-biased diodes which consumes least amount of electric power. 
 
 
193.  Beginners-based Clap Switch
Are you interested in making some different as well as interesting electronic project? This website brings very simple circuit diagram of clap switch. For turning ON or OFF the working of any electronic appliance at your home, you just have to clap only twice a time. Without moving from the sitting position, you can directly ON as well as OFF the working of any electronic appliance. 
 
 
194.  Determining the Anode and Cathode of LED
You are confused regarding the selection of Anode and Cathode legs of LED when both of the legs have same length. Generally, longer leg of LED shows Anode while the shorter leg of Cathode represent Cathode. This webpage brings four simple methods for selecting the proper Anode and Cathode leg. Now you don't have to confused for the Anode and Cathode leg of LED. 
 
 
195.  Making of Infrared Sensor Modules
You all are most welcomed to this website which brings very simple method of making of infrared sensor module. Detecting the very accurate reflecting surface is the main motto behind the simple construction. This sensor can be used to detect reflecting silver/white strip, obstacle detection, flame detection etc. By following some simple instructions, you can make this simple circuit within few minutes. 
 
 
196.  Beginners-based Simple Field Strength Meter
Welcome to this website which brings simple circuit diagram of field strength meter which is very sensitive. For measuring the accurate strength of RF signals, this simple circuit diagram consists of state-of-the-art technology based digital voltmeter. This is a perfect project for beginners having least knowledge regarding electronics. 
 
 
197.  Beginner-based Electronic combination lock with PIC
When it comes to the making of most truthworthy electronic lock then only this website is counted on the top rank. When someone enters the correct code, this simple circuit turns ON the relay for a few seconds. You will be pleased to know that the code can be any time changed as per requirement. Furthermore, you much have atleast basic knowledge of programming for making this project. 
 
 
198.  Electronic irrigation controller with PIC
Are you keenly interested in making very reliable irrigation controller with PIC (Programmable Interface Controller)? Now you don't have to worry for the shortage of water in summer as well as winters. This is a simple one-valve irrigation controller made for our greenhouse. For making this project, you must have at least the basic knowledge of programing. 
 
 
199.  Making of Automatic College Bell
You all are wholeheartily welcomed to this webpage which brings the simple construction of automatic college bell. This circuit can be considered as the best replacement for ordinary college bell. By following some simple instructions, you can make your own automatic college bell with in few minutes. This simple bell works faultless with the least consumption of electric power. 
 
 
200.  Beginners-based DC-DC Convertor
This website brings simple circuit diagram of DC-DC Converter which is very simple to make and by changing the value of the zener diode, the circuit can be universally adapted to provide other output voltages. This circuit will generate a smaller DC output voltage from a larger DC input voltage. By following some simple instructions, you can make your own DC-DC Converter within few minutes.
 
 
201.  Making of KeyLock
You all are wholeheartily welcomed to this website which brings simple circuit diagram of keylock. For detecting the pressed key, here you can see the use of A/D (Analog to Digital) converter converting continuous signals to discrete digital numbers. The conversion of input analog voltage into digital number can be easily done with the help of A/D converter. This webpage not only brings the construction as well as working but it also brings the PCB layout which is specially designed for the beginners.
 
 
202.  Mains Remote-Alert for beginners
When it comes to the making of most reliable mains remote alert then only this website is counted on the top. For making this simple electronic circuit, you must have some simple electronic components including resistor, capacitor, zener diode, cables etc., and they all are easily available at your local market. This webpage brings the entire construction as well as working of this simple project.
 
 
203.  Beginners-based MilliGauss Meter
Detecting the exact amount of intensity of AC field around any workplace or home is now not a difficult task. Welcome to this website which brings simple circuit diagram of milligauss meter which works impeccable with the least consumption of electric charge. This simple circuit not only detect the electromagnetic radiation emitted by any electrical appliances but also detects the amount of the electronic magnetic energy which is absorbed by the any body.
 
 
204.  Making of Connection Tester
Here you can see the simple circuit diagram of connection tester which is widely used for checking soldered joints as well as connections. For working faultless, this simple electronic circuit consists of 741 op-amp which is is a DC-coupled high-gain electronic voltage amplifier with differential inputs and usually a single output. This is a perfect project for beginners having least knowledge regarding the basic electronics.
 
 
205.  Beginners-based Electromagnetic Field Probe with Meter Output
Detecting the exact location of EM (Electromagnetic Field) is the main aim for making this simple electronic project. It will easily detect both audio as well as RF signals up to frequencies of around 100kHz. Additionally, you much be known that this is not a circuit of metal detector but it can easily detect the metal wiring. This is a perfect project for beginners having little knowledge of basic electronics.
 
 
206.  Switchmode Power Supply for Car Audio
When it comes to the making of most reliable switchmode power supply for car audio then only this website is ranked on the top. This simple electronic project play a vital role in understanding the complete theory behind the working of switching power supplies. While making this simple electronic project, please make sure about the accurate power supply because high power may damage your electronic device.
 
 
207.  Beginners-based High Current Bipolar Stepper Motor Controller
Are you interested in making your bipolar stepper motor controller circuit? If yes, you are at right place. This is a simple circuit diagram of high current bipolar stepper motor controller whose working is based on Chopper Drive - Chopper drive is a method of providing a constant current source to a device. Additionally, Chopper drive allows for use of higher voltage power supply for better performance and higher speed. By following some simple instructions, you can make your own high current bipolar stepper motor controller within few minutes.
 
 
208.  Making of Function Generator
Now you needn't to buy different generators for producing different ranges of output like Sine, Square and Triangle outputs. You all are wholeheartily welcomed to this website which brings simple circuit diagram of function generator which has capability of producing four ranges of output including Sine, Square and Triangle outputs. For working faultless, this simple electronic circuit consists of ICL8038 (IC) integrated circuits.
 
 
209.  20 Watt Class-A Power Amplifier
Welcome to this webpage which brings simple circuit diagram of 20 Watt Class-A Power Amplifier. Class A amplifying devices operate over the whole of the input cycle such that the output signal is an exact scaled-up replica of the input with no clipping. This is a simple circuit diagram of 20 Watt Class-A Power Amplifier in which the collector current can increase as well as decrease. 
 
 
210.  Making of 3V FM Transmitter
Are you keenly interested in making your 3V FM transmitter? If your answer is yes, you are at right place. This website brings simple circuit diagram of 3V FM transmitter which works impeccable with the least consumption of electric power. You will be pleased to know that you can easily modify this simple circuit as per requirement. This is a perfect project for beginners having little knowledge of basic electronics.
 
 
211.  LED-based Automatic emergency Light
When it comes to the making of most truthworthy automatic emergency light then only this website is counted on the top rank. Here is the simple circuit diagram of LED-based automatic emergency light which has more advantage as compared to the normal emergency light. Due to the use of white LED, this state-of-the-art technology based automatic emergency light gives bright light. The light turns ON automatically when mains supply fails and turns OFF when mains power resumes.
 
 
212.  Adjustable Power Supply with Charger Output
Adjusting power supply for various electronic components is not a difficult task. This website brings simple circuit diagram of power supply with charger output. You will be pleased to know that with the help of this circuit you can also charger your mobile phone. Moreover, the adjustable output also serves as multipurpose power supply. By following some simple instructions, you can make your own adjustable power supply circuit within few minutes.
 
 
213.  Making of Fast Electronic Fuse
Welcome to this webpage which brings simple circuit diagram of very reliable electronic fuse which protects your electronic appliances from the short circuit. This webpage brings simple circuit of an electronic fuse which is carefully designed to operate on 230V AC with an adjustable trip current. When the current through the load exceeds a level determined by the position of the wiper on the 1k wire-wound pot, this circuit cuts off the load immediately.
 
 
214.  Beginners-based Digital Volume Control
When it comes to the making of most authentic digital volume control then this website is counted on the top rank. This website brings simple circuit diagram of digital volume control which can be easily prepared within few minutes. For working impeccable, this simple electronic circuit consists of six discrete ICs, 5V regulator, resistors etc. This electronic project is perfect project for beginners having little knowledge of electronics.
 
 
215.  Simple circuit diagram of battery charger
Are you keenly looking for a reliable battery charger? If your answer is yes, you are a right place. Here is the simple circuit diagram of battery charger. Now you don't have to buy a battery charger from the market. By following some simple steps as well as instructions, you can make your own very authentic battery charger. You can easily select any one of the method. 
 
 
216.  The making of 60 W linear amplifier
Here you can learn the simple method for making 60W linear amplifier. The 60 Watt linear amplifier is simple solid state circuit using power MOSFET IRF840. You will be amazed to know that the alignment of the circuit is very simple and easy. You can easily connect a dummy load to the output of the circuit. Here is the complete description of the electronic circuit. 
 
 
217.  The making of digital dice project
You all are wholeheartily welcomed to this website bringing the most truthworthy digital dice project. This very simple electronic circuit consists of 555 Timer, 7490 decade counter, 7483 4-bit binary adder etc. You will be pleased to know that this digital dice project is considered as an interesting project which displays the random number from 1 to 9 on the 7 segment display. 
 
 
218.  Audio signal tracer circuit
Here is the simple circuit diagram of audio signal tracer circuit. This simple electronic circuit play a vital role in tracing an audio signal through a maze of wires running around the house. When it comes to the most authentic audio signal tracer circuit then only this website is counted on the top rank. This is a perfect electronic circuit for beginners. 
 
 
219.  Cuckoo sound generator for engineering students
Welcome to this website bringing the simple circuit diagram of cuckoo sound generator. This circuit generates a two-tone effect very much alike the cuckoo sound. This cuckoo sound generator can be used for door-bells or other purposes. In addition to this, this cuckoo sound generator can also be connected with tape recorders, external amplifiers etc. Here is the simple circuit diagram. 
 
 
220.  DC servo motor driver project
Here is the simple circuit diagram of DC servo motor driver project. These modern technology based DC servo motors are widely used in radio controlled airplanes, radio controlled cars and robotics. A servo motor is a small device that has an output shaft which can be positioned to specific angular positions by sending the servo a pulse coded modulation signal. The picture of a servo motor is as shown below. 
 
 
221.  Simple insect repellant circuit
Now you don't have to worry for your marvelous looking garden. Here is the simple circuit diagram for keeping away the repugnent insects from your attractive garden. Now kept away the insects from your garden in this summer. The output is amplified by a pair of complimentary output transistors and drives a Motorola 3.25 inch Piezo. Here is the detail description of insect repellant circuit. 
 
 
222.  Beginners-based electronic scoring game
This is very interesting electronic project named as “Electronic Scoring Game”. You can easily play this electronic scoring game alone or with your friends. For faultless working, this electronic scoring game consists of a timer IC, display driver along with a 7-segment display and two decade counters. This electronic game is really very simple and you can make your electronic scoring game by following some general instructions. 
 
 
223.  A simple construction of doorbell for the deaf
Here you can see the simple circuit diagram of doorbell for the deaf. When a door bell switch is pressed, this circuit provides a delayed visual indication. In addition to this, a DPDT switch can be moved from within the house which will light a lamp in the door bell switch. Here is the complete explanation of the doorbell for the deaf. 
 
 
224.  140 CRH capacitors for beginners
Here is the new class of capacitors named as “140 CRH capacitors ” which all have very high capacitance values up to 1000 µF. This 140 CRH capacitor is conidered as the matchless example of modern technology because it has very high ripple curent to 900mA at 125 °C. These modern technology based 140 CRH capacitors are introduced by a renowned named from the electonic industry named as “Vishay Intertechnology”. 
 
 
225.  Single – chip charger for beginners
Here is the simple circuit diagram of single-chip charger which is well-equipped with an intelligent charge management feature. This single-chip charger enables electronic devices to be simultaneously powered and charged via either an AC-to-DC adapter or through a USB port. This single-chip charger is introduced by Microchip. 
 
 
226.  The making of melody generator for greeting cards
Here you can learn the simple method for the making of melody generator for greeting cards. For impeccable working, this electronic circuit consists of a single 3 terminal IC UM66. And this UM66 is connected to its supply and its output fed to a transistor for amplification. This is a perfect electronic project for the beginners. Here is the complete description of the circuit. 
 
 
227.  Metronome circuit for engineering students
This website brings simple metronome circuit which is widely used for producing an interesting sound effect. For faultless working, this circuit uses a couple of Op-Amps for generating an interesting sound effect. Here you can see the the complete description of metronome circuit. And by following some simple instructions, you can make your own metronome circuit. 
 
 
228.  The making of high quality intercom
Here you can learn the simple method for the complete construction of high quality intercom which may also be used for room monitoring. This state-of-the-art technology based circuit consists of two identical intercom units. For the impeccable working, each unit consists of audio amplifier and a push to talk (PTT) relay circuit, microphone preamplifier etc. The schematic can be broken into 34 parts, power supply, mic preamp, audio amplifier and PTT circuit. 
 
 
229.  Remote doorbell warning switch
Here is the simple circuit diagram of remote doorbell warning switch. While watching your favorite program on TV, it is quite easy to miss the sound of your doorbell. This circuit gets round the problem by providing a visual indication, i.e. a lamp. In addition to this, a LED (light emitting diode) can also be used. 
 
 
230.  Magnetic gun for beginners
Here you can see the simple circuit diagram of magnetic gun. When magnetic gun is optimally tuned, it propels a small slug about 1.5 metres high or 2.5 metres horizontally. This electronic circuit consists of many IC (integrated circuits). IC1 is a 555 timer in astable mode, sending approx. 10 ms pulses to decade counter IC2. IC2 is continually reset through R3, until pin 15 is taken low through the "Fire" button. 
 
 
231.  Ultrasonic radar for engineering students
Here you can see very interesting project named as “ultrasonic radar” which is widely used in different applications including security, shops, cars, homes etc. This ultrasonic radar consists of a set of ultrasonic receiver and transmitter which can be easily operated at the same frequency. The circuit is very sensitive and can be adjusted to reset itself automatically or to stay triggered till it is reset manually after an alarm. 
 
 
232.  Water level indicator with alarm
Here is the simple circuit diagram of water level indicator which gives an alarm when tank is full. In addition to this, you can also easily measure the accurate amount of water in the overhead tank. For working impeccable, water level indicator circuit consists of CD4066, LED as well as bilateral switch CMOS IC. When the water is empty the wires in the tank are open circuited and the 180K resistors pulls the switch low hence opening the switch and LEDs are OFF. 
 
 
233.  12V to 9V DC converter
Here is a simple circuit diagram of converter which converts 12V into 9V DC. For getting better output voltage, you can easily replace zener diode Z1 with 10V and R1 with a 1Kilo ohm potentiometer. By following some simple steps, you can also make your own converter. 
 
 
234.  MOSFET current sensing: method of mirror current sensing a MOSFET
Welcome to this website which brings simple circuit diagram of MOSFET current sensing. The circuit shows the method of 'mirror' current sensing a MOSFET. MOSFET – a fully conducting resistive behaves exactly as a resistor. In addition the MOSFET''s on resistance has a positive temperature coefficient so as it warms up, keeping the voltage across it limited will automatically reduce the limited current flowing through it, keeping it within its safe region over a wide range of junction temperatures. 
 
 
235.  Flashing heart for beginners
You all are wholeheartily welcomed to this website which brings simple circuit diagram of flashing heart. This flashing heart circuit can be a perfect gift for your love ones. This flashing heart is very easy to built because it consists very common electrical components like LED (light emitting diode), resistor, inductor etc. With the flashing heart, you can get your message across in bright lights. 
 
 
236.  Solid state tesla coil/high voltage generator
You all are heartily welcomed to this website bringing simple circuit diagram of high voltage generator. For demonstrating high frequency voltage, this is very useful as well as cheap circuit. This circuit diagram consists of state-of-the-art technology based TV flyback transformer for powering LASERS. 
 
 
237.  Wire loop alarm for beginners
Here is the simple circuit diagram of wire loop alarm which can be used in hallways, doorways etc. Siren is also installed in wire loop alarm circuit but it can be easily replaced by a relay to drive an external siren, commercial alarm etc. 
 
 
238.  Low impedance microphone amplifier
Here is the simple circuit diagram of low impedance microphone amplifier. This low impedance microphone amplifier is used for low impedance (~200 ohm) microphones. It will work with stabilized voltages between 6-30 V DC (direct current). By following some simple steps, you can make your own authentic low impedance microphone amplifier. 
 
 
239.  AC motor speed controller for beginners
You will be pleased to know that this AC motor speed controller can be used for handling most of the AC motors and some other loads nearly 250W. The working of AC motor speed controller is same as that of light dimmer circuit. This circuit also works for a wide variety of loads including incandescent light bulbs, heating elements, brushed AC motors and some transformers. 
 
 
240.  Radio controlled electronic switch
Here is the simple circuit diagram of radio controlled electronic switch. This switch can be used to switch ON / OFF electronic instruments. Some of the electronic instruments are as follows: navigation lights, landing gear, sound systems, glowplug driver, bomb release etc. The heart of radio controlled electronic switch is CMOS Dual D' Flip-Flop MC14013B. 
 
 
241.  Sine/Cosine wave oscillator for engineering students
Here you can learn the simple method for the construction of Sine/Cosine wave oscillator. This is a simple circuit diagram of oscillator which outputs the Sine wave and the Cosine wave at the same time using the operational amplifier. 
 
 
242.  3 Watt FM Transmitter for beginners
Here is the simple as well as schematic circuit diagram of FM transmitter with 3 to 3.5 W output power that can be used between 90 and 110 MHz. Here you can see the detail description for the complete construction of 3 Watt FM transmitter. By following some simple steps, you can also make your own 3 Watt FM transmitter. 
 
 
243.  8 note tune player for beginners
This is a simple circuit diagram of 8 note tune player. This 8 note tune player can be easily played in 8 different tunes at any speed. You select the notes with 8 trim pots. The speed in selected through a ninth pot. This electronic circuit is powered by 9 volt battery. 
 
 
244.  Aircraft radio communications receiver
Are you interested in making a truthworthy aircraft radio communications receiver? If your answer is yes, you are at right place. Radios, having frequencies 220MHz to 400MHz band commonly, are generally used for the aircraft communications. With an easy to build circuit such as this one, everyone can enjoy listening in on these conversations. 
 
 
245.  EchoMp3 - small MP3 player with VS1002D
Now you can make your own MP3 player with the help of VS1002D having an excellent quality. This state-of-the-art technology based EchoMp3 - small MP3 player with VS1002D is powered by a single AAA (HR03) 1V2 battery running on a 18LF452 or 18LF458 at 20 MhZ. Reliability and durability are some of the outstanding characteristics of this electronic project. 
 
 
246.  Electronic keypad for beginners
This is a simple circuit diagram of an electronic keypad. This electronic keypad work faultless using CMOS 408, relay as well as AND gate. These gates only produce a HIGH output, when both the inputs are HIGH. The alarm will switch off when the 4 keys connected to "A,B,C,D" are pushed in the right order. 
 
 
247.  Wireless multimeter for beginners
Welcome to this website which brings simple circuit diagram of wireless multimeter. For impeccable working, wireless multimeter consists of low-cost DMM (digital multimeter), TX (transmitter circuit), RX (receiving circuit) etc. Wireless multimeter is widely used for reading all LCD data from a cheap DMM (directly from its main chip). This data is sent and received by wireless modules, read by the RX circuit and then displayed again. 
 
 
248.  RDS/RBDS decoder with optional FM stereo receiver
This project supports both RDS (Europe) and RBDS (USA) Tuner FM band 88..108 MhZ (Europe and USA). The circuit needs a couple of seconds of valid RDS/RBDS data before driving the LCD. You can choose between a 4x20 character LCD or a smaller graphical LCD to display data. A simple RS232 interface can also be used. 
 
 
249.  Flash slave trigger for engineering students
You all are heartily welcomed to this website which brings simple circuit diagram of flash slave trigger. Flash slaves are used when you need to supplement one flash unit with one or several more. It does this by "seeing" the first flash (using a phototransistor) and triggering the other flashes a few microseconds later. The sensitivity of the circuit is adjustable to compensate for ambient light or dimmer than usual master flashes. 

 
250.  Simple tube Op-amp hybrid amplifier
Here is the simple circuit diagram of simple tube Op-amp hybrid amplifier. The topology of the amplifier is a simple grounded cathode gain stage coupled through a capacitor to an op-amp (operational amplifier) wired in unity gain mode. This amplifier circuit is very simple and you can also construct your own circuit by following some common steps. 
 
 
251.  2 Transistor FM voice transmitter
Here you can learn the simple method for the detail construction of 2 Transistor FM voice transmitter. Although only low power this circuit may be tuned to operate over the range 87-108MHz with a range of 20 or 30 meters. For faultless working, 2 Transistor FM voice transmitter consists of BC548 transistors. This 2 Transistor FM voice transmitter consumes least amount of power. 
 
 
252.  Low power FM transmitter for beginners
Are you wholeheartily interested in making your own low power FM transmitter? If your answer is yes, you are at right place. This technical article brings simple circuit diagram low power FM transmitter. It is specially designed to use an input from another sound source and transmits on the commercial FM band. The frequency of FM band is in between 88 to 108MHz. 
 
 
253.  Programmable clock oscillator for beginners
Welcome to this website which brings simple circuit diagram of programmable clock oscillators. The main aim of programmable clock oscillator is to generate clock pulses for a stepper motor drive system. In addition to this, this oscillator is also designed for a very wide frequency range. 
 
 
254.  Better volume controls
You all are most heartily welcomed to this website bringing simple circuit diagram of better volume control. There is also an active version of the 'better volume control', which uses an op-amp (operational amplifier) and a pot in the feedback loop. Reliability and durability are some of the salient features of this electronic circuit. 
 
 
255.  Morse code practice oscillator for beginners
Welcome to this website which brings simple circuit diagram of morse code practice oscillator. This morse code practice oscillator is specially designed for the beginners which uses 555 Timers for producing dit or dah sound. It is configured as an astable mode of which the output will oscillate once the 9V power supply is connected to the circuit. 
 
 
256.  Countdown timer project using 555 Timer
Here is the simple circuit diagram of countdown timer project using 555 Timer. The main function of 555 Timer is to activate a relay either in ON/OFF mode. In addition to this, countdown timer project also consists of an oscillator, a ripple counter and two switching transistors. A potentiometer is also included in the design so the period can be set to exactly 1 second by timing the LED flashes. 
 
 
257.  Electronic timer switch project
This is a simple circuit diagram of electronic timer switch. This is a automatically electronic timer which will turn ON for 100 seconds each after 60 minutes. And it will again OFF after 100 seconds. It will again ON for the next 100 seconds before OFF again for the next 60 minutes. And this sequence will be continuously repeated. 
 
 
258.  Listening to Class D for beginners
Welcome to this website from where you can see the simple circuit diagram of Class D audio amplifier. These Class D audio amplifiers are considered as the picture perfect example of modern engineering because they work faultless with the least consumption of electric power. Now you don't look further than Class D audio amplifiers to find a technology whose proponents tend toward exuberant advocacy at best and bald-faced hype at worst. 
 
 
259.  Rocket model rocket launcher for engineering students
Here you can see the simple circuit diagram of time delayed launch control in this article. For initiating the launch, you press the fire switch with the help of time delayed launch control. Then the circuit begins to count-down, giving you plenty of time to step back so that you can view the impending event from a safe distance, record the launch, or prepare to monitor experiments during the flight. 
 
 
260.  Class D audio-power amplifiers
You will be surprised to know that class D audio-power amplifiers are much more efficient and advanced than that of classical amplifiers. But class D audio-power amplifier has one disadvantage. It has high level of noise as well as distortion. With the advent of IC versions of Class D amplifiers, you can easily design an efficient amplifier suitable for battery-operated devices. 
 
 
261.  Light dimmer circuit schematic description
Here you can make you own light dimmer circuit which work faultless with the consumption of 220/240V AC power. This trustworthy light dimmer circuit can be widely used for adjusting the brightness of main lights. You can make this simple circuit using a triac, diac, audio-frequency interference (RFI) noise suppression circuit etc. 
 
 
262.  50W electronic amplifier constructional project
Here you can see the simple circuit diagram of 50W electronic amplifier constructional project. This electronic amplifier project is based on an IC amplifier module from ST microelectronics, the TDA7294. You will be pleased to know that this electronic amplifier project has wide bandwidth, very low noise and distortion. In addition to this, it has both short circuit and thermal protection. 
 
 
263.  9V backup power for R/C aircraft
Welcome to this website from where you can learn the simple method for making a authentic 9V backup power for R/C aircraft. This circuit is specially designed for providing power to the large aircraft. You need some electronic components like a 1N4007 diode, (general purpose) PNP transistor, two ceramic capacitors, switch harness, buzzer, and a small amount of vero board. 
 
 
264.  12V NiCd car charger - using car battery
Here you can see the simple circuit diagram of 12 V NiCd car charger. This circuit provides up to 20V output from a regular 13.2V automotive battery. By following some simple steps, you can also make your own 12V NiCd car charger. Reliability and dependability are some of the outstanding characteristic of the circuit. 
 
 
265.  Home stereo amplifer for beginners
Here is the simple circuit diagram of 1 watt home stereo amplifier. This circuit diagram consists of an IC KA2209 which is same as that of TDA2822 IC. You will be surprised to know that this home stereo amplifier work on 3 to 12 volt DC. It requires no heat sink for normal use. 
 
 
266.  Hand clap electronic control for beginners
Are you wholeheartily interested in making your own hand clap electronic control? If your answer is yes, you are at right place. Now you can make your own hand clap electronic control electronic device. Here you can see the complete as well as detailed circuit diagram of hand clip circuit. Circuit operation is as follows: 
 
 
267.  12 volt strobe circuit for engineering students
Here is the simple circuit diagram of 12 volt strobe circuit which is specially designed for the engineering students. This is a only reliable circuit when you want to run the stroboscope with the help of batteries. In addition to this, this circuit has many applications like stroboscope effects, fast charging flash for camera etc. 
 
 
268.  A 100 watt guitar amplifier for beginners
The making of guitar amplifier is always an interesting challenge. Here you can learn simple circuit diagram for making 100 watt guitar amplifier. This electronic project work faultless with the consumption of 120 volts power. But if you are not familiar with the circuits powered by 120 volts then you should not attempt this project. 
 
 
269.  Beginners-based AM / FM / SW active antenna
Are you keenly interested in making your own active antenna? If yes, you are at right place. Here you can learn the simple method for making your own reliable active antenna which is widely used for AM, FM, and shortwave SW. And this is the a perfect project for your final year project. 
 
 
270.  Lie Detector For Engineering Students
Here's a simple lie detector that can be built in a few minutes, but can be incredibly useful when you want to know if someone is really telling you the truth. It is not as sophisticated as the ones the professionals use, but it works. It works by measuring skin resistance, which goes down when you lie. 
 
 
271.  Digital IC tester
Welcome to this website which brings simple circuit diagram of digital IC tester. For testing an IC, we need to use different hardware circuits for different ICs; like we need a particular kind of tester for testing a logic gate and another for testing flip flops or shift registers which involves more complication and time involved will also be more. An integrated circuit tester (IC tester) is used to test integrated circuits (ICs). We can easily test any digital IC using this kind of an IC tester. So here’s an IC tester to overcome this problem. Unlike other IC testers, this is more reliable and easier since we don’t need to rig up different kind of circuits for different kind of ICs, each time we need to test them. 
 
 
272.  FM Transmitter Circuit For Engineering Students
You are all wholeheartily welcomed to this website from where you can see simple circuit diagram of FM transmitter circuit. And this simple circuit diagram works faultless with the least consumption of electric power. By following some simple steps, you can make your own FM transmitter circuit. Here is the complete and detail construction of FM transmitter circuit: L1 is 0.112uH (this tunes to the middle of the FM band, 98 MHz, with VC1 at its centre value of 33pF). L1 is 5 turns of 22 swg enamelled copper wire close-wound on a 5mm (3/16") diameter former. Alternatively, you can have a fixed 33pF cap instead of VC1 and have L1 as an adjustable molded coil (eg UF64U from Maplin). VC1 will give you a tuning range of 85 - 125 MHz, and a possible choice is the Philips type polypropylene film trimmer (Maplin code WL72P). Two sets of oscillator bias resistors are given, the ones in the brackets give about 20% more RF power. Mike is our favorite Omnidirectional sub-mini electret (Maplin code FS43W). 
 
 
273.  Digital code lock for engineering students
Here you can see simple circuit diagram of digital code lock which can be easily made with the help of 89C2051 processor. Here you can can also see the detail as well as complete description for making your own digital code lock. This project source code is written in C. Both the C files and hex files are given for download. 
 
 
274.  Control your PC with TV remote
You will be surprised to know that now you can control your window media player, mouse cursor etc., with the help of your TV remote. Now, you don't have to get up from your seat to change the either the volume, music track etc. You can do all these work with the help of your remote TV. Here you can learn simple circuit diagram of “control your PC with TV remote”. 
 
 
275.  Home Automation Over The Internet For Engineering Students
You will glad to know that the controlling of home appliances are now possible through Internet. It is very useful electronic circuit which can be used in your domestic purpose. This project provides the schematic and source codes to control devices over the Internet. Most of the people thought of controlling home appliances and other things like bulbs, tubes and switches etc., using an IR remote or a wired things running from your computer to your switch board, but what if you are not at home and suddenly you reminded that you have left something on but you are not sure and you can't even go back. Don't worry friends solution is here. now access your fully automated home from anywhere in the world that the power of Internet. 
 
 
276.  A Bluetooth 8051 interface project for engineering students
Bluetooth technology, originally developed by Ericsson but now controlled by the Bluetooth SIG (Special Interest Group), a consortium of 1000+ tech companies, offers the promise of a global standard for short range wireless communication between an ever-increasing variety of devices and peripherals. Today Bluetooth is following the same symbolic path to establish a common platform for communicating between disparate types of computing devices. Beyond the colorful origin of its name, Bluetooth is a compelling new radio technology that opens up a new world of opportunity for uniting and empowering mobile device users. 
 
 
277.  Digital Voltmeter
A voltmeter finds its importance wherever voltage is to be measured. Here, we present an easy-to-build and accurate digital voltmeter that has been designed as a panel meter and can be used in DC power supplies panels or where it is necessary to have an accurate indication of the voltage. 
 
 
278.  What is the difference between BIOS and CMOS?
Are you familiar with the exact difference between BIOS (Basic input/output system)and CMOS (Complementary metal oxide semiconductor)? If your answer is no, you are at right place. BIOS - Basic input/output system is a computer program which is responsible for starting up the computer but CMOS (Complementary metal oxide semiconductor) is where the BIOS stores its entire data and configuration.
 
 
279.  electronics project
remote controlled digital audio processor
 
 
280.  Inheritance in O/R Mapping
Object oriented applications usually have inheritance as an important part of their design, including in their domain objects. However, the corresponding data model has no built-in mechanism for specifying inheritance. Therefore, you must map your domain objects to your relational database intelligently.
 
 
281.  Redirect Web Visitors By Country Using ASP and MS-SQL Database
There are times when it is useful to redirect a visitor to different default web page based on the visitor's country of origin. One practical usage is to redirect visitor to web page with the language recognized by the visitor. This article shows you how to build up such a system using ASP (server side scripting language) and MS-SQL (IP address to country lookup database).
 
 
282.  DISPLAY USING 8051 MICROCONTROLLER
A seven segment display has seven LEDs connected in a sequence to give a regular shape and a LED to display the dot for decimal point. It has 10 pins. Out of this two pins are common for all LEDs and remaining are opposite polarity terminals of the LED. When common anode seven segment display is used, two common terminal pins are connected to +5v or logic high state and another terminal are kept at logic low state. Then respective LED glows. 
 
 
283.  Wireless Stepper Motor Control
In this circuit stepper motor is controlled without any wire connected from control limit. Here we use the Intra Red (IR) rays for wireless communication.
 
 
284.  Car parking system using microcontroller
Automatic multistoreyed car parking system is very good substitute for car parking area. In the modern world, where parking-space has become a very big problem and in the era of miniaturization, it is become a very crucial necessity to avoid the wastage of space in modern, big companies and apartments etc. In places where more than 100 cars need to be parked, this system proves to be useful in reducing wastage of space. This Automatic Car Parking System enables the parking of vehicles, floor after floor and thus reducing the space used. Here any number of cars can be parked according to the requirement. This makes the system modernized and even a space-saving one. This idea is developed using 8051 Microcontroller. 
 
 
285.  Java Database Interaction Mechanism Using Oracle Reference Cursors
Abstract: This document describes on a unique mechanism and process that enable to make use of Oracle references cursors in Java Database programming in developing highly scalable business applications with greater performance. About the Author: Ravi Kumar Buragapu is a Technical Lead in Wipro Technologies. His interest in IT lead him from his Ph.D. in Electronics to object-oriented programming, and then to distributed computing and software architecture.
 
 
286.  Armor2net Personal Firewall
Armor2net Personal Firewall is a program for the Windows operating system that helps protect computers from the threats on the Internet and World Wide Web. With Armor2net Personal Firewall in place, end-users can breathe a sigh of relief. Armor2net Personal Firewall software provides a complete spectrum of Internet security and Internet privacy for computers. The program protects the computer from hackers, data thieves, and other Internet-based dangers. Armor2net Personal Firewall carefully monitors the computer and tracks all connections, both incoming and outgoing. This allows the user to determine which connections are allowed and which are not. The software will show complete details of each connection, so the user can turn off unsafe connections and block dangerous Internet sites. In addition, Armor2net Personal Firewall is able to stop Internet pop-up ads, a feature that can be customized for each individual Web site. The program will also search your computer for spyware, and remove the spyware components safely. Armor2net Personal Firewall allows the user to grant and deny access to the Internet on a per-application basis, which will prevent harmful worm, Trojan horse, and spyware programs from infiltrating your computer. The program also alerts you of any intrusive behavior coming from the Internet. Armor2net Personal Firewall has an easy-to-use interface and is very intuitive. Unlike most of its competitors, Armor2net is truly ¡°intelligent¡± firewall software that allows many of its functions to be automatically processed. The application is perfectly suited for home and office, for new users and those with great experience. System requirements: Armor2net Personal Firewall will run under Windows 98, ME, 2000, and Windows XP. It requires 32MB of RAM and 20MB of free hard disk space. Availability: Armor2net Personal Firewall is available for $19.99 from the Armor2net Web site at http://www.armor2net.com. For more information on Armor2net Personal Firewall or other products from Armor2net, contact Armor2net at (+1)775-321-9608, customer@armor2net or visit the company¡¯s Web site at http://www.armor2net.com 
 
 
287.  Improve your .NET Application Development
Rapidly develop distributed N-Tier database applications with TierDeveloper. Map and generate your middle-tier objects as .NET components and generate web services interface for them instantly. TierDeveloper lets you do all of this matter in matter of minutes instead of days and weeks that it would normally take you. Tier Developer generates .NET components in C# and VB.NET and can let you hosts them as web services with IIS. Check it out. Free 30 days trial available at: http://www.alachisoft.com/redirect_page.php?source=electronicsforu.com&dest=http://www.alachisoft.com/download.htm Related Links ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- http://www.alachisoft.com/time_savings.htm: TierDeveloper time saving analysis http://www.alachisoft.com: AlachiSoft website 
 
 
288.  Are You Firewired?
The FireWire serial bus can transmit data 30 times faster than USB. Named IEEE 1394, this interface can connect up to 63 devices at one time.
 
 
289.  Innovation Interface: 8 Technology Combos You May See in Future Products
Has everything been invented? Will we only see improvements on existing technology? That’s what one might ask after this year’s CES.
 
 
290.  Fiber And Optical Networking
The foundation of any optical system is the fiber optic cabling, where many challenges of reaching higher transmission speeds are played out. Understanding the types of fibers available, how they work, and their limitations is crucial to mastering next-generation networks. 
 
 
291.  WLANS: The Options you have
In the last issue, we discussed three key technologies that are being used for Wide Area Networks (WANs). This time we showcase five leading technologies that can make your LANs (Local Area Networks) go wireless.
 
 
292.  Digital Watermarking: Mark this Technology
Have you pondered over how to protect ownership rights over digital data that's exclusively yours? You could look towards digital watermarking for a solution. The techniques currently available, though, are effective only in a limited way and susceptible to attacks.
 
 
293.  Towards a Mobile Internet
Mobile IP, a new, standardised version of the Internet Protocol (IP), promises to connect your mobile computing device with the Internet, even while your are travelling in a car, a train or in an aeroplane. So get ready to browse on the move...
 
 
294.  CD Player: How it works?
Get to know how a CD player works and how an audio CD player can be converted into a video CD player.
 
 
295.  Cisco AVVID—The Architecture for E-Business
Cisco AVVID (Architecture for Voice, Video and Integrated Data), defines a framework for building and evolving customer networks that support Internet business solutions. The industry's only enterprise-wide, standards-based network architecture, Cisco AVVID, provides a roadmap for combining business and technology strategies into one cohesive model. Cisco AVVID describes network elements for clients (devices with which users access the network), the network infrastructure (network platforms and intelligent network services), Internet middleware (software and tools), Internet business integrator interaction, and Internet business solutions. 
 
 
296.  Remote Mirroring
Veritas volume replication technology, and how it enhances disaster tolerance in Oracle8i databases
 
 
297.  Bright Idea: A New Class of Sensors Fashioned from LEDs
The same technology behind the glowing lights reminding people to turn off VCRs and stereos is being applied to new treatments for hard-to-heal wounds and new super-efficient traffic lights. Now, a group of scientists at the University of Wisconsin-Madison have shed light on a valuable new use for LEDs by demonstrating their usefulness as chemical sensors
 
 
298.  Microscope Checks Semiconductor Wafers at Atomic Level
Compound semiconductors such as gallium arsenide are used in the vital components of many of today’s consumer products such as laser printers, CD-ROMs and in emitters and detectors for fibre optic communications systems. Industrially, these electronic devices are often made by a technique called Metal-Organic Vapour Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE) where gas sources react on a hot substrate to deposit a film of material. By changing the gas source, layers of different composition can be built up to create a complex device structure. The technique is to make custom wafers for many manufacturers worldwide. 
 
 
299.  Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Nearing Practical Application
Flexible, light-emitting plastic film layers of less than a millimetre thickness will soon be triggering a revolution in display and illumination systems. Polymers by such tongue twisting names as polythiopene (red), polyfluorene (blue) and polyphenylenvinylen (green) consist of aromatic benzene rings which are pearl strung via carbon double bonds. As in conventional light-emitting diodes, the benzene electrons are excited by an exterior voltage of 3 to 5 Volt. In returning to their original state they emit light in a colour specific to their material which is exceptionally brilliant and soft. 
 
 
300.  Beyond LAN: 10GbE for High Bandwidth Metro Systems
Even during the Telecom meltdown, bandwidth requirements are still growing. Enterprise applications such as Internet, extranet and VPN access, emerging business-to-business and peer-to-peer applications as well as broadband consumer access via DSL and cable modems continue to drive carrier and ISP bandwidth needs. To support these requirements, system designers are looking for cost effective 10Gb packet-based solutions for building, metropolitan optical access and transport networks.
 
 
301.  Introducing Xilinx and Programmable Logic Solutions for Home Networking
Xilinx has been successful in the communications and networking markets because of the dynamics in these markets. The eSP: Home Networking program helps system designers and ASIC/FPGA designers understand the technology and market dynamics to make the right decisions in this marketplace.
 
 
302.  Spartan-II Family as a Memory Controller for QDR-SRAMs
The explosive growth of the Internet is boosting the demand for high-speed data communication systems. In order to increase memory bandwidth significantly for future high-performance communication applications, Cypress Semiconductor, Integrated Device Technology, Inc. and Micron Technology have jointly defined and developed a new SRAM architecture referred to as the Quad Data Rate™ (QDR™) SRAM technology. FPGAs are ideal to implement the control and interface logic, which ties the CPUs to the QDR SRAMs. The Spartan™-II FPGA, with its unique and extensive features, is an ideal memory controller interface for the QDR SRAM. Spartan-II offers more than 100,000 system gates at under $10 and are the most cost-effective programmable logic devices (PLD) solution ever offered.
 
 
303.  Xilinx at Work in Set-Top Boxes
This White Paper gives an overview of different set-top box technologies and how Xilinx high volume programmable devices can be used to implement complex system level glue in a variety of set-top box designs. It concentrates on set-top box technology used to receive television over satellite, cable and terrestrial channels.
 
 
304.  New Virtex-II Pro Devices – Increased Capability, Lower Cost
Now you get programmable system features at programmable logic prices
 
 
305.  You can Take it with you: On the Road with Xilinx
Xilinx products and technology are putting office technology and functionality into next-generation automobiles. 
 
 
306.  Drink? I'll Just Call the Robot
BT's futurologist, Ian Pearson, is paid to look into the future, keep track of developments throughout technology and figure out future implications for BT and its customers.
 
 
307.  FPGAs – Enabling DSP in Real-Time Video Processing
With Xilinx FPGAs you can create DSPs that are much faster than any off-the-shelf stand-alone DSP device. 
 
 
308.  Intelligent Light
The latest generation of optical network solutions has dramatically lowered the cost of deployment, provisioning, and operations over traditional architectures, while IP shines as the de facto standard for business and consumer applications. 
 
 
309.  Optical MAN: The Metro Railway
The metropolitan-area network now carries a rapidly growing percentage of traffic on public networks. Cisco provides several solutions for the optical MAN. 
 
 
310.  Pioneering Mobile Networks
NASA tests Mobile IP and Cisco Mobile Networks to forge new era of wireless and satellite communications.
 
 
311.  Wireless Broadband Modems
Wireless broadband Internet access uses many frequency bands. Wireless broadband modems offer similar performance to cable modems operating over wired cable television systems (CATV), but the business is easier to enter as the transmitters cover an entire city or region.
 
 
312.  High-Speed Text Entry for Handhelds
As computing migrates out of the office into the living room in the form of interactive TVs and game consoles and into our pockets in the form of palmtop computers, smart phones, and two-way pagers, the need to enter and edit text quickly and comfortably is obvious, but not adequately addressed. Today, productive text entry requires a desk-bound keyboard and mouse, and thoughts continue to take shape primarily at a desk
 
 
313.  Advanced Digital Set-top Boxes: A Strong Case for Flash File Systems
Over the past couple of years the convergence of television and computers has taken a major step forward with the proliferation of digital TV technologies. This new environment facilitates the broadcasting of data alongside video and audio content. 
 
 
314.  Wireless Networking Technologies: Options for MANs and WANs
Many technologies are there that allow you to link up your networks even when they are situated far apart. Let us review the best three here.
 
 
315.  Personal Access System: Cordless Phones for Generation Next
The General Packet Radio System (GPRS) and the controversial Code Division Multiple access (CDMA) have been discussed at length in global telecom circles. Today, there is another revolutionary technology - the Personl Access System (PAS) - doing the telecom round.
 
 
316.  AMD'S Opteron - A Chip Full of Options
Unlike Shakespeare, AMD does believe in the sanctity and individuality a name brings to a product. That is why it has changed the brand name of its 8th-generation enterprise class processor for servers from SledgeHammer to Opteron, underlining the optional performances it offers.
 
 
317.  Chemical Attraction
Let's see what happens when always-on collides with portable, a pair of attributes that encompass an increasing number of embedded systems. We'll find out why the quest for thinner, lighter, smaller, and more usable gizmos poses such interesting problems.
 
 
318.  

Nanotechnology and Life Extension
For centuries, humans watched birds flying and wished they could do the same. However, today's airplanes look and function very differently from birds. We have learned that rigid wings, engines, and propellers or turbines can be used to build much larger and faster flying machines than nature ever created. Still, it was the birds that showed us it was possible.

                                                                                                                 

 

                                                                                                                              Source: EFY Network 

 

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